Covalent Bonds Study Guide


Matter is composed of small building units known as atoms. An atom is composed of a nucleus and electrons. Electrons are responsible for forming bonds with other atoms in order to create a molecule of a compound. Let us find out how a bond is formed.

There are two types of bonds that are formed between two atoms of similar or dissimilar elements. An electrovalent bond is formed when an atom completely loses or gains an electron(s), while the mechanism of a covalent bond is slightly different. There are numerous examples of chemical bonds in everyday life.



Some atoms of elements have very high ionization energy, due to which they are unable to give up their electrons. While others may have low electron affinity, preventing them from gaining an electron. The only other alternative is to share electrons so that there is no deficit or gain of electrons in either. The subsequent bond formed in such an arrangement is known as a covalent bond.


One needs to remember that a covalent bond does not participate in the creation of new electrons; instead, the existing ones are shared between the atoms. Since there are no free electrons, elements or compounds with covalent bonds are unable to conduct electricity. But, covalent bonds are extremely powerful, which is why they make the strongest elements or compounds that are difficult to separate.

Covalent bondingSource


The two atoms of oxygen are held together by a covalent bond to form O2, and we are all aware of how essential oxygen is in our lives. Not only does it help in respiration, but it is also responsible for transforming food into energy. Water is another example of a covalent bond and is a basic necessity of our lives. Moreover, the carbohydrate we take in to provide our body with energy to carry out daily activities is also formed from a covalent bond. These are some of the examples of covalent bonds in everyday life.


1. What are five examples of covalent bonds?

Five examples of covalent bonds are hydrogen (H₂), oxygen (O₂), nitrogen (N₂), water (H₂O), and methane(CH₄).

2. What is a covalent bond?

A chemical bond involving the sharing of electron pairs between atoms is known as a covalent bond. The electrons are drawn to their nuclei by electrostatic attraction. Atoms share electrons to attain the stable electronic configuration following the octet rule.

3. What are the different types of covalent bonds?

According to the number of electron pairs that are being shared, there are three kinds of covalent bonds. They are single covalent bond, double covalent bond, and triple covalent bond. There are three types of covalent bonds according to the polarity of the bond. They are polar covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond, and coordinate covalent bond.

4. How are covalent compounds used in the human body?

Covalent bonds can generally be seen in carbon-based molecules like DNA and other proteins. They are also found in inorganic molecules like H₂O, O₂, etc. These are utilized in the human body for different purposes.

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  1. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure: Accessed 7th March 2022.
  2. Levels of Sharing: Accessed 7th March 2022.

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